ANSI Z535.1:2006

  • Safety Color Code

ANSI Z535.3:2011

  • Criteria for Safety Symbols

ANSI Z535.4:2011

  • Product Safety Signs and Labels

ANSI Z535.6:2011

  • Product Safety Information in Product Manuals, Instructions and Other Collateral Materials

ASAE J284:2002

  • Safety Alert Symbol for Agricultural, Construction and Industrial Equipment

ASABE S304:May 2010

  • Graphical symbols for operator controls and displays on agricultural equipment

ASABE S441.3:February 2010

  • Safety Signs

EN/ISO 81714-1:2010

  • Design of graphical symbols for use the technical documentation of products
  • Part 1: Basic rules

IEC 60417 DB

IEC 80416-1:2008

  • Basic principles for graphical symbols for use on equipment
  • Part 1: Creation of graphical symbols for registration

ISO 80416-2:2001

  • Basic principles for graphical symbols for use on equipment
  • Part 2: Form and use of arrows

ISO Online Browsing Platform (OBP) – Formerly Concept Database

ISO 2575:2011 + A1

  • Road vehicles - Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales

ISO 3287:1999

  • Powered industrial trucks
  • Symbols for operator controls and other displays

ISO 3461-1:1988

  • (NOTE: Superseded by IEC 80416-1:2008)

ISO 3461-2:1987

  • (NOTE: Superseded by ISO 81714-1:2010)

ISO 3767-1:2008 + A2

  • Tractors, machinery for agriculture and forestry, powered lawn and garden equipment
  • Symbols for operator controls and other displays
  • Part 1: Common symbols

ISO 3767-2:2008

  • Tractors, machinery for agriculture and forestry, powered lawn and garden equipment
  • Symbols for operator controls and other displays
  • Part 2: Symbols for agricultural tractors and machinery

ISO 3767-3:1995

  • Tractors, machinery for agriculture and forestry, powered lawn and garden equipment
  • Symbols for operator controls and other displays
  • Part 3: Symbols for powered lawn and garden equipment

ISO 3767-4:2008

  • Tractors, machinery for agriculture and forestry, powered lawn and garden equipment
  • Symbols for operator controls and other displays
  • Part 4: Symbols for forestry machinery

ISO 3767-5:1992 + A1

  • Tractors, machinery for agriculture and forestry, powered lawn and garden equipment
  • Symbols for operator controls and other displays
  • Part 4: Symbols for manual portable forestry machinery

ISO 3864-1:2011

  • Graphical symbols
  • Safety colours and safety signs
  • Part 1: Design principles for safety signs and safety markings

ISO 3864-2:2011 + A1

  • Graphical symbols
  • Safety colours and safety signs
  • Part 2: Design principles for product safety labels

ISO 3864-3:2012

  • Graphical symbols
  • Safety colours and safety signs
  • Part 3: Design principles for graphical symbols used in safety signs

ISO 3864-4:2011

  • Graphical symbols
  • Safety colours and safety signs
  • Part 4: Colorimetric and photometric properties of safety sign materials

ISO 4196:1984

  • (NOTE: Superseded by ISO 80416-2)

ISO 6405-1:2010 + A1

  • Earth-moving machinery
  • Symbols for operator controls and other displays
  • Part 1: Common symbols

ISO 6405-2:2004 + A2

  • Earth-moving machinery
  • Symbols for operator controls and other displays
  • Part 2: Specific symbols for machines, equipment and accessories

ISO 7000 DB

ISO 7010:2011 + A2

  • Graphical symbols
  • Safety colours and safety signs
  • Registered safety signs

ISO 7296-1:1996 + A1

  • Cranes - Graphic symbols
  • Part 1: General

ISO 7296-2:1996

  • Cranes - Graphic symbols
  • Part 2: Mobile cranes

ISO 7296-3:2006

  • Cranes - Graphic Symbols
  • Part 3: Tower cranes

ISO 8999:2001

  • Reciprocating internal combustion engines - Graphical symbols

ISO 9244:2008

  • Earth-moving machinery
  • Machine safety labels - General principles

ISO 11684:1995

  • Tractors, machinery for agriculture and forestry, powered lawn and garden equipment
  • Safety signs and hazard pictorials - General principles

ISO 13200:1995

  • Cranes
  • Safety signs and hazard pictorials - General principles

ISO 15870:2000

  • Powered industrial trucks
  • Safety signs and hazard pictorials - General principles

ISO 17724:2003

  • Graphic symbols
  • Vocabulary

ISO 20381:2009

  • Mobile elevating work platforms
  • Symbols for operator controls and other displays

ISO 81714-1:2010

  • Design of graphical symbols for use in technical documentation of products
  • Part 1: Basic rules

SAE J115 FEB95

  • Safety Signs

SAE J284 JAN91

  • Safety Alert Symbol for Agricultural, Construction and Industrial Equipment

SAE J1362 JAN07

  • Graphical Symbols for Operator Controls and Displays on Off-Road Propelled Work Machines
Myth 1
“Depths of utilities can be assumed.”

Locator depths are approximate. Depths of utilities absolutely cannot be assumed. Even within distances less than a city block, a utility may dip or rise in depth. The surface grade often changes, sometimes dramatically, since utilities were originally installed. Utilities are often installed before excavation, fill and development happen that can change the surface grade dramatically. Utilities must be exposed to verify location and depth.


Myth 2
“It will never happen to me.”

That’s what every contractor or operator thinks, but utility strikes happen every day. Cutting corners and rushing to get the job done, thinking “I’ve done it a million times and nothing has happened,” getting lazy or complacent on the job… all of these can lead to major consequences. You have an important job to get utilities in the ground, safely and effectively. The risk is too great to depend on chance.


Myth 3
“Exposing to the depth of the utility is good enough.”

Exposing just to the depth of the existing utility is not proper practice and may violate OSHA regulations. You need to verify that no utilities are hiding underneath and always expose to the depth of the intended bore path. Visually observe the drill head as it passes the utility, and again during each pass of the reamer. The reamer can shift in the bore during pullback and strike a utility that appeared to have plenty of clearance.


Myth 4
"Just drill deeper to avoid existing utilities.”

Drilling deep creates problems such as locating and exposing for current and future excavation. At approximately 10’, locators become less accurate with locating the underground infrastructure. If the existing utility goes undetected, an underground strike can occur. Also, best practices dictate that the existing utility being crossed be exposed to the depth of the intended bore. That is difficult for deeper bores and if the line at that depth is ever damaged, the utility will have to dig deeper requiring a longer response time and greater expense.


Myth 5
“Sewer lines don’t need to be or cannot be located.”

If a sewer line is breached during a utility install, the sewer will eventually clog due to the intersection of the newly installed utility. To relieve the clog, a plumber will run a snake into the sewer and damage the line. If it is an electric line, the plumber can be electrocuted. If it is a gas line, the gas will migrate into the sewer and ignite once inside homes or businesses.

Several methods exist for locating sewage lines. Technologies like ground penetrating radar make it easier to locate lines and inspection camera systems are used to verify the lines were not breached.


Myth 6
“No locate marks = no utilities.”

If there are no marks, this could mean that it was not yet located. Many states have a positive response system so that it can be verified that all utilities have cleared the area. 

On-site, privately installed lines may not be recorded by the utility companies or located by the locating service. Inspect the area for evidence of underground activity, disturbed and repaired soil or pavement, utility boxes, conduit coming out of the ground, etc.


Myth 7
“My responsibility for damage prevention ends when I call 811. If something happens, 811 is liable.”

811 does not locate utilities. They coordinate with the utilities and their contracted locating services to have the area located. It is the responsibility of the excavator to verify that locates have been completed and are correct. This includes contacting utilities that don’t subscribe to 811, looking in the area for signs of utilities (outbuildings, pipeline markers, light poles, utility boxes, meters, etc.) and exposing the utilities to verify the locates. If an excavator damages a line, there are always costs to bear and effects on reputation.


Myth 8
“Exposing utilities (potholing) is included as part of the contract price for the drilling.”

This shouldn’t be assumed. To ensure potholing activity is included and is not shorted, it is recommended to separate this activity from the drilling in the quote. The project owner and contractor should work together to emphasize this as an important and integral part of the job.


Myth 9
"We have to accept whatever the caller gives us.”

When a contractor calls the Call Center or Utility, both parties have to be explicit and detailed with the information provided so an accurate and safe locates can be made.


Myth 10
“Electric strike alert systems can predict an electric strike.”

In some cases, the system may activate in the proximity of an energized line, but it cannot be relied upon to detect the line before a strike happens.  If the electric strike system activates, always assume an electric strike has occurred.  

Some strike systems detect a strike using only voltage detection via a voltage limiter. The voltage limiter is located away from the machine on a ground stake and detects the voltage difference between the ground stake and the drilling machine.

Other strike systems use both voltage and current detection. In addition to a voltage limiter, a current coil detects current flowing through the drill string.  The system will only activate the alarm when voltage, current, or a combination of both voltage and current is above threshold limits.  

For either system, if the alarm sounds, assume a strike has occurred. 

Other strike systems use both voltage and current detection. In addition to a voltage limiter, a current coil detects current flowing through the drill string.  The system will only activate the alarm when voltage, current, or a combination of both voltage and current is above threshold limits.  

For either system, if the alarm sounds, assume a strike has occurred.


Manufacturer's Role
Manufacturer

• Well-built machines designed to meet or exceed industry standards
• Operators Manual
• Training
• Proper jobsite checklists, guidelines, best practices
• Understand customers’ needs on different jobsites


Dealer's Role
Dealer

• Introduction to machine
• Pre-delivery of machine
• Training
• Inspections
• Maintenance
• Repairs
• Proper jobsite checklists, guidelines, best practices


Contractor's Role
Contractor

• Qualified Operator/Sub-Contractor
• Introduction to machine
• Pre-delivery of machine
• Training of crew and employees
• Inspections
• Maintenance
• Proper jobsite checklists, guidelines, best practices
• Quoting jobs to include plenty of time for utility verification
• Ensuring best practices are followed on jobsite


Operator's Role
Operator

• Qualifications, Experience, Competency
• Pre-delivery of machine
• Training
• Inspections
• Maintenance
• Repairs
• Jobsite preparation and hazard analysis
• Refuse to use improper procedures
• Operate the machine in accordance with the operator’s manual
• Be aware of jobsite personnel and activities
• Follow best practices on the jobsite


Utility's Role
Utility

• Locate utilities
• Mark utilities
• Maintain a diagram of utilities
• Expect quotes to include plenty of time for utility verification
• Assist operators with avoiding the utility
• Participate in 811 service
• Ensure contractors are following best practices


 811 Call Center's Role
811 Call Center

• Help callers make sure they are providing accurate and complete information
• Educate callers on the overall One Call process (wait 48 hours, not all services may be located at the same time by the same company)


Utility Locating Service's Role
Utility Locating Service

• Communicate with contractor/operator about planned job
• Mark accurate and complete information
• Provide a positive response that locate was completed, even if no utilities were present


Municipality's Role
Municipality

• Locate utilities
• Mark utilities
• Maintain a diagram of utilities
• Program for providing “positive response” information from locators


Government's Role
Government

• Standards
• Regulations
• Enforcement
• Education on standards and regulations


General Public's Role
General Public

• Awareness
• Reporting observed or suspected damage
• Enjoy the use and benefits responsibly


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